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Use this guide for engaging in research activities in psychology and related areas.

APA (American Psychological Association) Style, 7th ed.

APA Online

Crediting Sources: Paraphrasing, Quoting & Summarizing

When using ideas presented in other sources, it is important to credit authors -- individuals or organizations. Crediting sources is expected in academic and professional writing.

        Three ways to present information from sources are:

  • Paraphrasing: rewording ideas in your own words
  • Quoting directly:  using the source's exact words.
  • Summarizing:  restating the main ideas of a text in as few words as possible.
  • In-text citations always follow summaries and are placed near paraphrased ideas and direct quotations.
  • Reference lists of all sources cited in the paper appear in a list at the end of the paper.

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